In nature, adeniums are perennial tree-like plants or shrubs that grow in arid hot regions of central and southern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the island of Socotra. Adenium at home is a spectacular indoor flower, instantly attracting attention with an unusual thickened stem, dense leaves on the shoots’ tips and bright flowering. During the vegetation period, varietal plants adorn simple and double cornflowers in white, pink, crimson-red and purple tones.
Due to the unexpectedly lush succulent flowers, the culture received a second name, adenium “rose of the desert”, and became incredibly popular with the florists of the whole world.
For the first time adenium interested botanists in the XVIII century, when the first attempt was made to classify its species, but there are still a lot of different interpretations of the adopted system in the scholarly environment. It is customary to distinguish 10 types of adenomas that differ:
- form of caudex, flowers and leaves;
- features of vegetation;
- a place of natural growth.
Despite visible differences, some cultural experts believe that all the existing species belong to the same kind of adenium, and variations in appearance are caused by climatic, soil or other differences.
Adenium deusum (A. Obesum)
This species is the most common, known and most studied. In nature, adenium fat or fat can be found on both the African continent and the Middle East. The range of the most interesting plant is a wide strip stretching from Senegal in the west to Saudi Arabia in the east.
The name adenium is due to Aden, or to the present Yemen, where this extraordinary plant was first described.
For drought-resistant, high air temperatures and direct sun rays, the adenium of the dewum is characterized by periods of wakefulness and rest, when perennial:
- sheds elongated, leathery to the touch, gray-green leaves with a length of 6 to 15 cm;
- stops growth;
- does not form new colors.
This state is observed in the cold season and in dry seasons. With the beginning of vegetation, young foliage appears on the tops of the shoots. In the summer buds appear, turning into tubular flowers of crane and pink shades. The diameter of the 5-petal corolla in the wild adenoma fat varies from 4 to 7 cm, the variety flowers are much larger, up to 12 cm, and are more diverse in color and shape.
The thickened grayish-brown stem can grow to a meter thick, with a significant portion of the caudex being located under the soil, and the remaining adrenal adenoma trunk takes the form of a tree or shrub up to three meters high.
Because of the slow growth, limitation of pot size, and also due to pruning and shaping the house, adenium is unlikely to grow to such a size, but will please with bizarre shapes and bright colors.
Adenium multiflorous (A. Multiflorum)
The native land of the plant, which affects especially abundant flowering, is the central and southern regions. Here, the multi-flow adenium prefers to settle on sandy and alkaline soil.
An unpretentious species is satisfied with small accumulations of soil and is not afraid of drought, saving the moisture reserves inside a thickened trunk with a smooth grayish bark and hidden under the soil with powerful roots resembling a miniature baobab.
In nature, the plants of the multi-flow adenoma can reach a height of three meters and in many countries are under state protection because of the risk of extinction. Threats to the species are lovers of exotic cultures, hunting for lushly flowering specimens, livestock and monkeys, feeding on plant tubers.
Due to the incredible abundance of flowers, the adenium is called Impala lily, but in culture this species is less common than Adenium is obese, due to slow growth and the beginning of flowering after 4 years of age.
Adenium arabicum (A. Arabicum)
The name of adenium arabicum speaks for itself. This species with a massive, squat caudex grows on the Arabian Peninsula.
Depending on the climatic conditions, the appearance of the plant can vary. In areas with chronic droughts, the adenomas are shrub-shaped, where they have more moisture, they can look like strong, thick trees at the base with weakly expressed branches. At adenium arabicum fairly large leaves, pinkish, with a purple tint or dark brown bark and reddish-pink flowers.
At home, Adenium Arabic can be grown from seeds, to later engage in the formation of its caudex and trunk.
Adenomal Somali (A. Somalense)
The Somali species of adenium is a native inhabitant of Africa, growing in different areas of its range to a height of one and a half to five meters. The plant is characterized by a conical form of the trunk and a practically continuous flowering, if the plant manages to provide the sun’s abundance.
Green elongated leaves have a bright green color. Often white or light veins are visible on the leaf blade. For the winter, plants lose their foliage and need rest. Smaller flowers with narrower than adenium fat, petals flowers appear on thin branches. Coloring of 5-petal corollas – pink, crimson, red with clarification to the neck. The species can interbreed with Adeniumum desusum, which is what many breeders use. In addition, the Somali variety is easy to grow, the seedlings bloom for the first time in a year or a half after planting, when the stem rises to a height of 15-18 cm.
Adenium crispum (A. somalense var crispum)
Very decorative looks adenium krispum, considered a subspecies of Somali plants. A characteristic feature of the culture – narrow long leaves with whitish veins and crimped edges, which gave the name of this species, as well as a turnip subterranean caudex. Numerous subtle roots only increase the similarity to the root crop.
This kind of adenoma for the house is interesting not only for the shape of the stem and for the medium size, but also for the original flowers, unlike the flowers of the Somali adenium. Pink, less often red corollas are widely opened, petals have a noticeable bend.
Adenium is new, Tanzanian (A. somalense var., Nova)
One of the recently described subspecies of the Somali species – comes from the semi-deserts of Tanzania and the surrounding regions. In Adenium Crispum, this plant is related to the appearance of leaves, and pink or reddish corollas more closely resemble the flowers of Somalia’s Adenium.
Adenium bohmianum (A. boehmianum)
At the end of the XIX century, botanists discovered and described the appearance of Adenium bomchianum from the north of Namibia. This species is known not so much due to decorativeness, but as a poisonous plant, among the local population deserved the name of the Bushman’s Yad.
In nature, strong, reaching a three-meter height of the plant willingly branch, grow slowly and over time thickening on the trunk is smoothed. Spirally located leaves are only on the tops of shoots, they are leathery, 8-15 cm long leaf plate of a silvery-green hue with well-marked veins.
Almost rounded because of the wide petals, the corollas can be pink, lilac, raspberry. A characteristic feature of the adenium flower of this species is the rich purple color of the neck.
Adenium swazicum (A. swazicum)
The name of the adenium reflects the place of its origin – Swaziland. In the form of a shrub in height from 20 to 50 cm, the plants outwardly resemble their relatives, since only a few grayish or light green shoots with narrow long leaves and 6 cm of pink or lilac paint can be seen above the ground. Powerful rhizomes are buried beneath the ground and in adult plants are almost invisible.
At home, Adenius Swaziland long and willingly blossoms, rarely discards foliage, unpretentious and cold. It is not surprising that this species is readily used by breeders to obtain interspecies hybrids with adenium deum.
Adenium oleifolium (A. oleifolium)
African adenium oleifolium differs from its “brethren” in extremely slow growth and modest size. The bush with a powerful, thick rhizome and smooth trunk reaches a height of 60 cm.
Narrow, with a length of 5 to 12 cm, the leaves are painted in greenish-olive tones and are located on the tops of branches. Pink adenium flowers can have a yellow or white center. Discovery of buds collected in the inflorescence occurs simultaneously with the appearance of foliage.
Adenium Socotran (A. socotranum)
On the island of Socotra in the Indian Ocean, an endemic species of adenomas grows, according to the description, not found in other parts of the range of this plant. Compared with home adeniums – this is a true giant, growing to a 5-meter height.
A barrel reminiscent of a bottle can consist of several fused parts, on which transverse bands are necessarily visible. The branches are incomparably thinner than the main trunk. They are thin and fragile, crowned with dark green with white veins, shiny leaves up to 12 cm in length. Light pink adenium flowers have a diameter of 10-12 cm, a brighter rim passes along the edge of the petals.
Hybrids and varieties of adenoma for domestic farming
Although the birthplace of Adenium is the hot expanses of Africa and the Middle East, the centers of breeding and selection of these plants have become quite different regions. The main suppliers of new varieties and hybrids are the countries of southeast Asia, Thailand, India, Malaysia, the Philippines.
The local climate is excellent for reproduction of the culture. Here often there are exhibitions of bonsai on the basis of adenium, from here seeds and seedlings are scattered all over the world.
Today, special convenience for flower growers is used by house-sized Mini Size adiosums with a height of only 12-17 cm. To bloom such crumbs begin at the age of 2, opening 6 cm flowers on the tips of the shoots.
Another object of clear interest is variegate forms of adenomas with variegated foliage or completely discolored leaves.
At the disposal of flower growers today is a lot of hybrid plants and varieties of adenium with simple, terry, monophonic and colorful flowers. However, it is not uncommon for sellers who use the heavy popularity of plants to give out their wishful thinking and propose notorious counterfeit varieties.
Adeniums at home – video
- 1 Adenium deusum (A. Obesum)
- 2 Adenium multiflorous (A. Multiflorum)
- 3 Adenium arabicum (A. Arabicum)
- 4 Adenomal Somali (A. Somalense)
- 5 Adenium crispum (A. somalense var crispum)
- 6 Adenium is new, Tanzanian (A. somalense var., Nova)
- 7 Adenium bohmianum (A. boehmianum)
- 8 Adenium swazicum (A. swazicum)
- 9 Adenium oleifolium (A. oleifolium)
- 10 Adenium Socotran (A. socotranum)
- 11 Hybrids and varieties of adenoma for domestic farming